Lowest Component Count, Energy Efﬁcient
Off-Line Switcher IC
Cost Effective Linear/Cap Dropper Replacement
• Lowest cost and component count buck converter solution
• Fully integrated auto-restart for short-circuit and open
loop fault protection – saves external component costs
• LNK302 uses a simpliﬁed controller without auto-restart
for very low system cost
• 66 kHz operation with accurate current limit – allows low cost
off-the-shelf 1 mH inductor for up to 120 mA output current
• Tight tolerances and negligible temperature variation
• High breakdown voltage of 700 V provides excellent
input surge withstand
• Frequency jittering dramatically reduces EMI (~10 dB)
– minimizes EMI ﬁlter cost
• High thermal shutdown temperature (+135 °C minimum)
Much Higher Performance over Discrete Buck and
• Supports buck, buck-boost and ﬂyback topologies
• System level thermal overload, output short-circuit and
open control loop protection
• Excellent line and load regulation even with typical
• High bandwidth provides fast turn-on with no overshoot
• Current limit operation rejects line ripple
• Universal input voltage range (85 VAC to 265 VAC)
• Built-in current limit and hysteretic thermal protection
• Higher efﬁciency than passive solutions
• Higher power factor than capacitor-fed solutions
• Entirely manufacturable in SMD
EcoSmart®– Extremely Energy Efﬁcient
• Consumes typically only 50/80 mW in self-powered buck
topology at 115/230 VAC input with no load (opto feedback)
• Consumes typically only 7/12 mW in ﬂyback topology
with external bias at 115/230 VAC input with no load
• Meets California Energy Commission (CEC), Energy
Star, and EU requirements
• Appliances and timers
• LED drivers and industrial controls
LinkSwitch-TN is speciﬁcally designed to replace all linear and
capacitor-fed (cap dropper) non-isolated power supplies in the
HV DC Input
Figure 1. Typical Buck Converter Application (See Application
Examples Section for Other Circuit Conﬁgurations).
OUTPUT CURRENT TABLE1
230 VAC ±15%
LNK302P or G 63 mA 80 mA 63 mA 80 mA
LNK304P or G 120 mA 170 mA 120 mA 170 mA
LNK305P or G 175 mA 280 mA 175 mA 280 mA
LNK306P or G 225 mA 360 mA 225 mA 360 mA
Table 1. Notes: 1. Typical output current in a non-isolated buck
converter. Output power capability depends on respective output
voltage. See Key Applications Considerations Section for complete
description of assumptions, including fully discontinuous conduction
mode (DCM) operation. 2. Mostly discontinuous conduction mode. 3.
Continuous conduction mode. 4. Packages: P: DIP-8B, G: SMD-8B.
For lead-free package options, see Part Ordering Information.
under 360 mA output current range at equal system cost while
offering much higher performance and energy efﬁciency.
LinkSwitch-TN devices integrate a 700 V power MOSFET,
oscillator, simple On/Off control scheme, a high voltage switched
current source, frequency jittering, cycle-by-cycle current limit
and thermal shutdown circuitry onto a monolithic IC. The start-
up and operating power are derived directly from the voltage
on the DRAIN pin, eliminating the need for a bias supply and
associated circuitry in buck or ﬂyback converters. The fully
integrated auto-restart circuit in the LNK304-306 safely limits
output power during fault conditions such as short-circuit or
open loop, reducing component count and system-level load
protection cost. A local supply provided by the IC allows use
of a non-safety graded optocoupler acting as a level shifter to
further enhance line and load regulation performance in buck
and buck-boost converters, if required.
1.65 V -VT
Figure 2a. Functional Block Diagram (LNK302).
1.65 V -VT
Figure 2b. Functional Block Diagram (LNK304-306).
Pin Functional Description
DRAIN (D) Pin:
Power MOSFET drain connection. Provides internal operating
current for both start-up and steady-state operation.
BYPASS (BP) Pin:
Connection point for a 0.1 µF external bypass capacitor for the
internally generated 5.8 V supply.
FEEDBACK (FB) Pin:
During normal operation, switching of the power MOSFET is
controlled by this pin. MOSFET switching is terminated when
a current greater than 49 µA is delivered into this pin.
SOURCE (S) Pin:
This pin is the power MOSFET source connection. It is also the
ground reference for the BYPASS and FEEDBACK pins.
P Package (DIP-8B)
G Package (SMD-8B)
Figure 3. Pin Conﬁguration.
LinkSwitch-TN combines a high voltage power MOSFETswitch
with a power supply controller in one device. Unlike conventional
PWM (pulse width modulator) controllers, LinkSwitch-TN uses
a simple ON/OFF control to regulate the output voltage. The
LinkSwitch-TN controller consists of an oscillator, feedback
(sense and logic) circuit, 5.8 V regulator, BYPASS pin under-
voltage circuit, over-temperature protection, frequency jittering,
current limit circuit, leading edge blanking and a 700 V power
MOSFET. The LinkSwitch-TN incorporates additional circuitry
The typical oscillator frequency is internally set to an average
of 66 kHz. Two signals are generated from the oscillator: the
minadxicimateusmthdeubtyegciyncnleinsgigonfaela(cDhCcMyAcXle) .and the clock signal that
The LinkSwitch-TN oscillator incorporates circuitry that
introduces a small amount of frequency jitter, typically 4 kHz
peak-to-peak, to minimize EMI emission. The modulation rate
of the frequency jitter is set to 1 kHz to optimize EMI reduction
for both average and quasi-peak emissions. The frequency
jitter should be measured with the oscilloscope triggered at
the falling edge of the DRAIN waveform. The waveform in
Figure 4 illustrates the frequency jitter of the LinkSwitch-TN.
Feedback Input Circuit
The feedback input circuit at the FB pin consists of a low
impedance source follower output set at 1.65V.When the current
delivered into this pin exceeds 49 µA, a low logic level (disable)
is generated at the output of the feedback circuit. This output
is sampled at the beginning of each cycle on the rising edge of
the clock signal. If high, the power MOSFET is turned on for
that cycle (enabled), otherwise the power MOSFET remains off
(disabled). Since the sampling is done only at the beginning of
each cycle, subsequent changes in the FB pin voltage or current
during the remainder of the cycle are ignored.
5.8 V Regulator and 6.3 V Shunt Voltage Clamp
The 5.8 V regulator charges the bypass capacitor connected to
the BYPASS pin to 5.8 V by drawing a current from the voltage
on the DRAIN, whenever the MOSFET is off. The BYPASS
pin is the internal supply voltage node for the LinkSwitch-TN.
When the MOSFET is on, the LinkSwitch-TN runs off of the
energy stored in the bypass capacitor. Extremely low power
consumption of the internal circuitry allows the LinkSwitch-TN
to operate continuously from the current drawn from the DRAIN
pin. A bypass capacitor value of 0.1 µF is sufﬁcient for both
high frequency decoupling and energy storage.
In addition, there is a 6.3 V shunt regulator clamping the
BYPASS pin at 6.3 V when current is provided to the BYPASS
pin through an external resistor. This facilitates powering of
LinkSwitch-TN externally through a bias winding to decrease
the no-load consumption to about 50 mW.
BYPASS Pin Under-Voltage
The BYPASS pin under-voltage circuitry disables the power
MOSFET when the BYPASS pin voltage drops below 4.85 V.
Once the BYPASS pin voltage drops below 4.85 V, it must rise
back to 5.8 V to enable (turn-on) the power MOSFET.
The thermal shutdown circuitry senses the die temperature.
The threshold is set at 142 °C typical with a 75 °C hysteresis.
When the die temperature rises above this threshold (142 °C) the
power MOSFET is disabled and remains disabled until the die
temperature falls by 75 °C, at which point it is re-enabled.
The current limit circuit senses the current in the power MOSFET.
When this current exceeds the internal threshold (ILIMIT), the
Figure 4. Frequency Jitter.
power MOSFET is turned off for the remainder of that cycle.
The leading edge blanking circuit inhibits the current limit
comparator for a
is turned on. This
that current spikes caused by capacitance and rectiﬁer reverse
recovery time will not cause premature termination of the
Auto-Restart (LNK304-306 only)
In the event of a fault condition such as output overload, output
short, or an open loop condition, LinkSwitch-TN enters into auto-
restart operation. An internal counter clocked by the oscillator
gets reset every time the FB pin is pulled high. If the FB pin
is not pulled high for 50 ms, the power MOSFET switching is
disabled for 800 ms. The auto-restart alternately enables and
disables the switching of the power MOSFET until the fault
condition is removed.
A 1.44 W Universal Input Buck Converter
The circuit shown in Figure 5 is a typical implementation of a
12 V, 120 mA non-isolated power supply used in appliance
control such as rice cookers, dishwashers or other white goods.
This circuit may also be applicable to other applications such
as night-lights, LED drivers, electricity meters, and residential
heating controllers, where a non-isolated supply is acceptable.
The input stage comprises fusible resistor RF1, diodes D3 and
D4, capacitors C4 and C5, and inductor L2. Resistor RF1 is
a ﬂame proof, fusible, wire wound resistor. It accomplishes
several functions: a) Inrush current limitation to safe levels for
rectiﬁers D3 and D4; b) Differential mode noise attenuation;
c) Input fuse should any other component fail short-circuit
(component fails safely open-circuit without emitting smoke,
ﬁre or incandescent material).
The power processing stage is formed by the LinkSwitch-TN,
freewheeling diode D1, output choke L1, and the output
capacitor C2. The LNK304 was selected such that the power
supply operates in the mostly discontinuous-mode (MDCM).
Diode D1 is an ultra-fast
of approximately 75 ns,
a reverse recovery time
for MDCM operation.
inductor with appropriate RMS current rating (and acceptable
temperature rise). Capacitor C2 is the output ﬁlter capacitor;
its primary function is to limit the output voltage ripple. The
output voltage ripple is a stronger function of the ESR of the
output capacitor than the value of the capacitor itself.
To a ﬁrst order, the forward voltage drops of D1 and D2 are
identical. Therefore, the voltage across C3 tracks the output
voltage.The voltage developed across C3 is sensed and regulated
via the resistor divider R1 and R3 connected to U1ʼs FB pin.
The values of R1 and R3 are selected such that, at the desired
output voltage, the voltage at the FB pin is 1.65 V.
Regulation is maintained by skipping switching cycles. As the
output voltage rises, the current into the FB pin will rise. If
Figure 5. Universal Input, 12 V, 120 mA Constant Voltage Power Supply Using LinkSwitch-TN.
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