t4U.com July, 2000
.DaInduction Heating System Topology Review
w Discrete Application
w Power Device Division
w Fairchild Semiconductor
oAll IH (induction heating) applied systems are developed using electromagnetic induction which
was first discovered by Michael Faraday in 1831. Electromagnetic induction refers to the phenom-
.cenon by which electric current is generated in a closed circuit by the fluctuation of current in
another circuit placed next to it. The basic principle of induction heating, which is an applied form
of Faraday’s discovery, is the fact that AC current flowing through a circuit affects the magnetic
Umovement of a secondary circuit located near it. The fluctuation of current inside the primary circuit
t4provided the answer as to how the mysterious current is generated in the neighboring secondary
circuit. Faraday’s discovery led to the development of electric motors, generators, transformers,
and wireless communications devices. Its application, however, has not been flawless. Heat loss,
ewhich occurs during the induction heating process, was a major headache undermining the overall
efunctionality of a system. Researchers sought to minimize heat loss by laminating the magnetic
frames placed inside the motor or transformer. Faraday’s Law was followed by a series of more
hadvanced discoveries such as Lentz’s Law. This law explains the fact that inductive current flows
inverse to the direction of changes in induction magnetic movement.
SHeat loss, occurring in the process of electromagnetic induction, could be turned into productive
taheat energy in an electric heating system by applying this law. Many industries have benefited
from this new breakthrough by implementing induction heating for furnacing, quenching, and weld-
aing. In these applications, induction heating has made it easier to set the heating parameters with-
out the need of an additional external power source. This substantially reduces heat loss while
.Dmaintaining a more convenient working environment. Absence of any physical contact to heating
devices precludes unpleasant electrical accidents. High energy density is achieved by generating
sufficient heat energy within a relatively short period of time.
wThe demand for better quality, safe and less energy consuming products is rising. Products using
wIH include electronic rice cookers and pans. Safe, efficient and quick heating appliances attract
more customers. This document describes induction heating, power systems, and IH applications.
w taSheet4U.comRev D, July 2000
2. Types of Electric Process Heating
Prior to describing induction heating, some types of electric process heating are explained below to
help you understand normally used heat sources.
The types of electric heating are as follows:
• Resistance Heating
• Conduction Heating
• Infrared Radiation Heating
• Induction Heating
• Dielectric Hysteresis Heating
• Electric Arc Heating
• Plasma Heating
• Electron Beam Heating
• Laser Heating
Resistance heating is the most common type of electric process heating. It uses the relationship
between the voltage and current of resistance in Joule’s Law.
Conduction heating exploits the heat energy generated when an object is placed between two
electric poles, which is another application of Joule’s Law. In this case, however, a different rela-
tionship exists between voltage and current, especially when the circuit current is high, because
the object itself contains both resistance and inductance features.
The main topic of this document is induction heating, which is a combination of electromagnetic
induction, the skin effect, and the principle of heat transfer. In short, induction heating refers to the
generation of heat energy by the current and eddy current created on the surface of a conductive
object (according to Faraday’s Law and the skin effect) when it is placed in the magnetic field,
formed around a coil, where the AC current flows through (Ampere’s Law). Detailed descriptions of
induction heating are presented in the following sections of the document.
3. Basics of Induction Heating
Induction heating is comprised of three basic factors: electromagnetic induction, the skin effect,
and heat transfer. The fundamental theory of IH, however, is similar to that of a transformer. Elec-
tromagnetic induction and the skin effect are described in this section. Figure 3-1 illustrates a very
basic system, consisting of inductive heating coils and current, to explain electromagnetic induc-
tion and the skin effect. Figure 3-1-a shows the simplest form of a transformer, where the second-
ary current is in direct proportion to the primary current according to the turn ratio. The primary and
secondary losses are caused by the resistance of windings and the link coefficient between the
two circuits is 1. Magnetic current leakage is ignored here.
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When the coil of the secondary is turned only once and short-circuited, there is a substantial heat
loss due to the increased load current (secondary current). This is demonstrated in Figure 3-1-b.
Figure 3-1-c shows a system where the energy supplied from the source is of the same amount as
the combined loss of the primary and secondary. In these figures, the inductive coil of the primary
has many turns while the secondary is turned only once and short-circuited. The inductive heating
coil and the load are insulated from each other by a small aperture. The next phase of the skin
effect occurring under high frequency is presented in Section 3-2.
As the primary purpose of induction heating is to maximize the heat energy generated in the sec-
ondary, the aperture of the inductive heating coil is designed to be as small as possible and the
secondary is made with a substance featuring low resistance and high permeability. Nonferrous
metals undermine energy efficiency because of their properties of high resistance and low perme-
I1 I2=I1 (N1/N2)
I1 I2=I1 N1
N1 N2 RL
<figure 3-1a > equivalent circuit
<figure 3-1b> secondary short
Figure 3-1: Basics of Induction Heating
3-1. Electromagnetic Induction
As shown in Figure 3-1, when the AC current enters a coil, a magnetic field is formed around the
coil according to Ampere’s Law.
∫Hdl = Ni = F
∅ = µHA
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An object put into the magnetic field causes a change in the velocity of the magnetic movement.
The density of the magnetic field wanes as the object gets closer to the center from the surface.
According to Faraday’s Law, the current generated on the surface of a conductive object has an
inverse relationship with the current on the inducting circuit as described in Formula 3-2. The cur-
rent on the surface of the object generates an eddy current.
As a result, the electric energy caused by the induced current and eddy current is converted to
heat energy as shown in Formula 3-3.
P = E2 ⁄ R = i2R
Here, resistance is determined by the resistivity (ρ) and permeability (µ) of the conductive object.
Current is determined by the intensity of the magnetic field. Heat energy is in an inverse relation-
ship with skin depth which is described in Section 3-2.
If an object has conductive properties like iron, additional heat energy is generated due to mag-
netic hysteresis. The amount of heat energy created by hysteresis is in proportion to the size of the
hysteresis. In this document, this additional energy is ignored because it is far smaller (less than
10%) than the energy generated by induction current.
3-2. Skin Effect
The higher the frequency of the current administered to the coil, the more intensive is the induced
current flowing around the surface of the load. The density of the induced current diminishes when
flowing closer to the center as shown in Formula 3-4 and 3-5 below. This is called the skin effect or
kelvin effect. From this effect, one can easily infer that the heat energy converted from electric
energy is concentrated on the skin depth (surface of the object).
ix = ioe–x ⁄ do
distance from the skin (surface) of the object, current density at x.
current density on skin depth (x=0)
a constant determined by the frequency (current penetration depth or skin depth)
do = µ-2---ω-ρ--
where, ρ: resistivity
µ: permeability of the object
ω: Frequency of the current flowing through the object
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